It is very hard to say what the most popular linux distribution are. It depends on the people choice. Some people love to work on ubuntu and some like other OS distribution.  My personal favorite is ubuntu for Desktop and Redhat for Server.  The main advantage of linux is , you can work on both graphical and through command line.  Linux distribution have long been used as Server operating system. But the popularity of Linux on standard desktop computers and laptops has been increasing over the years. 

Here I am going to list top Linux os distribution. These are –

1.   Ubuntu

fedora

Like of many people Ubuntu is my first choice for work on home. it can be used for both desktop and server. Ubuntu is debian based linux operating system. It is used for desktop , sever , tablets and also for smart phones.  Ubuntu offers following editions –

1. Ubuntu Server Editions

   2. Ubuntu Desktop Editions

3. Ubuntu Netbook Remix

Additional details :-

Created by :  Canonical Ltd. 

Home Page : http://www.ubuntu.com

Ubuntu download Page 

Read more about ubuntu distribution at wikipedia.

Latest release : ubuntu 17.04

2.  Fedora

fedora

Fedora is unix like operating system based on the linux kernel and GNU program. It is sponsored by Red Hat.  It uses rpm package management system. Fedora offers following editions –

                  1.     Fedora workstation

       2.   Fedora server

       3.   Fedora cloud

Additional details :-

Created by : Fedora Project (sponsored by Red Hat)

Home Page : https://getfedora.org/

Fedora download Page 

Read more about fedora at wikipedia.

Latest release : fedora 26

3.  Red Hat

Red Hat

Red Hat is one of the best linux distribution. Red Hat operating system is widely used as server OS.  Red Hat is an american multinational software company. It is founded by Bob young. This is my favorite linux os distribution. It is free . You can simply download it from website and use . But Red Hat charge money for their support, if you need.

Additional details :-

Created by :  Red Hat

Home Page : https://www.redhat.com/

RedHat download Page 

Read more about Red Hat at wikipedia.

Latest release : RHEL 7

4. Debian

Debian

 

Debian is unix like computer operating system. Debian officially contains only free software but you can download non-free software and install from debian repositories. Debian include many free popular software like Libreoffice , Firefox , vlc media player and many more. Package management operation can be performed with different tools available on debian.

Additional details :-

Created by :  Lan Murdock

Home Page : http://www.debian.org/

Debian download Page

Read more about Debian at wikipedia.

Latest release : Debian 9.0

5. Centos

centos

This is totally based on Red Hat enterprise linux . If you don’t want to spend money on purchasing Red Hat support , but still want all the benefit you can use centos.  Centos devloper uses Red Hat source code to create a product similar to RHEL.

Additional details :-

Created by : CentOS Project

Home Page : https://www.centos.org/

Centos download Page

Read more about Centos at wikipedia.

Latest release : CentOS 7.3